electrical devices around the home or office create electromagnetic
fields; TV's, radios, PC's, hairdryers to name a few.
phenomenon of electromagnetic fields has been known for more than a
century, but only relatively recently has speculation about possible
effects on human health been made. As a result, there are calls for
more information to be made available to customers on this important
committed to bringing such information to customers and has an ongoing
research sponsorship program in this area. The company is addressing
research into mobile phone safety at a global level. The World Health
Organization (WHO) has published an 'EMF Research Agenda' listing
recommendations for further research needed to enable a better health
risk assessment to be made.
joined forces with many other leading manufacturers around the world to
conduct research within a global framework. The company is also pooling
resources to systematically address the WHO recommendations through the
Mobile Manufacturers Forum, a global association formed in 1998.
years, a substantial amount of scientific research has been conducted
into radio frequency (RF) energy emitted by mobile phones and their
base stations. Independent expert panels have reviewed the findings of
many hundreds of studies; consistently the conclusions of these reviews
are that there is no demonstrated health risk.
2000, the WHO updated its fact sheet with the most recent findings and
determined that, 'None of the recent reviews have concluded that
exposure to the RF fields from mobile phones or their base stations
causes any adverse health consequence.' (Source: WHO Fact Sheet 193,
United States Food and Drug Administrations agrees and states that,
'The available scientific evidence does not demonstrate any adverse
health effects associated with the use of mobile phones.' (Source: US
FDA CDRH Consumer Update on Mobile Phones, 20 Oct 1999)Although a large
amount of technical data is available there has, until now, been a lack
of common, global benchmarks which might prove helpful to bringing
meaningful information to customers.
test methods are now becoming accessible and a new way of making
relevant information available began at the end of 2000 with the
publication of some technical data.
is to give customers understandable information relating to the
exposure levels of their mobile phones. The levels are calculated as
the Specific Absorption Rate or SAR, which is a measure of the quantity
of radio waves, absorbed by the body.
latest developments are all about presenting such information in a way
that is helpful and meaningful to customers.
the industry trade body in the United States - the Cellular
Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) - Nokia has agreed
to make SAR values available and to put information, expressed simply,
on packaging and within user guides.
2001, such information will be more widely available in regions other
than the USA as standardized testing methodologies are established. By
making SAR information available in a standardized way, customers will
be in a position to make informed choices about their mobile phone
values of individual models of mobile phones will vary, and some will
be higher than others.
All Nokia mobile phones are designed to comply with science-based
safety standards and recommendations. The industry is viewing the
publication of this information as a means to enable informed choice.
frequency energy is an inescapable fact of life. Our homes and offices
contain many devices that emit electromagnetic fields. Indeed, sunlight
itself is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and, as our chart shows,
acts as the divide between non-ionizing energy, which can cause heating
and ionizing energy which can cause molecular change.
phones operate firmly within the non-ionizing part of the spectrum.
When radio waves are absorbed by the body, they produce heat energy at
low levels that are well understood and very significantly below any
adverse heating effect.
Harrison is Nokia Director of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) issues and
is current Chairman of the Mobile Manufacturers Forum, a body which
co-ordinates research and policy on behalf of all the world's leading
mobile phone manufacturers.
instances, claims that mobile phones cause adverse health effects have
been made into the subject of legal cases. All of those decided so far
by any courts of law worldwide have been dismissed for lack of
evidence. Currently, there are two cases ongoing in the USA where Nokia
and other defendants have been named. Nokia believes that the
allegations made in these cases are without merit and will defend these
NOKIA FEATURED ARTICLE
How safe are Mobile Telephones?
the safety of our customers is of the utmost importance.
been speculation about the safety of mobile phones and their base
stations. For example some newspaper articles allege that illness may
occur as a result of using a handset or living near a base station.
scientific fact does not support the allegations of possible links to
harmful health effects. In fact a substantial amount of scientific
research conducted all over the world over many years, demonstrates
that radio signals within established safety levels emitted from mobile
telephone and their base stations present no adverse effects to human
at Nokia we are responsive to our customers' concerns about mobile
phone safety. That is why through contributing to high quality research
programs globally, we support the development of better scientific and
public understanding of these issues.
also important to note that research findings are reviewed by
government agencies, international health organizations and other
scientific bodies. These reviews support the scientific conclusion that
the radio signals at levels below the limits prescribed by safety
standards and recommendations around the world present no adverse
effects to human health. All Nokia products fulfill relevant national
and international safety standards and limits that are set by public